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        2020-12-27 13:34 | 太奇MBA網

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        Section I  Use of English
        Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
        I's not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, __1__ to understand their negative consequences. Most word-related behaviors have multiple components. __2__ one and others become distorted.
        Travel on a London bus and you'll __3__ see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are there inspectors to __4__ that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And People who run for the bus? They are__5__. How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently a cyclists.
        Why? Because the target is __6__. People complained that buses were late and infrequent. __7__, the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were __8__ or punished according to the time they took And drivers hit their targets. But they 9 hit cyclists. If the Target was changed to __10__, you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more __11__ drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would beat the expense of time.
        There is another __12__: people become immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you__13__ that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the a__14__ is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight.
        The __15__ of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well 16 others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a __17__. Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.
        This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria __18__ critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not to __19__ just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better __20__ the objective.
        1. [A] therefore [B] again  [C] moreover [D] however
        2. [A] identify     [B] assess     [C] emphasize [D] explain
        3. [A] curiously [B] quickly     [C] eagerly     [D] nearly
        4. [A] check [B] prove [C] recall     [D] claim
        5. [A] threatened [B] mocked [C] ignored        [D] blamed
        6. [A] hospitality [B] competition [C] punctuality  [D] innovation
        7. [A] Yet [B] Besides [C] Still     [D] So
        8. [A] rewarded [B] trained [C] grouped      [D] hired
        9. [A] rather      [B] also     [C] suspicious [D] only
        10. [A] comfort        [B] efficiency [C] security [D] revenue
        11. [A] cautious     [B] quiet     [C] set aside [D] friendly
        12. [A] purpose      [B] prejudice [C] policy [D] problem
        13. [A] revealed        [B] noticed [C] admitted [D] reported
        14. [A] break [B] departure [C] transfer [D] trip
        15. [A] form         [B] background     [C] style  [D] moral
        16. [A] sacrifice [B] criticize [C] tolerate     [D] interpret
        17. [A] secret [B] cost            [C] product [D] task
        18. [A] relating to      [B] calling for     [C] accounting for [D]leading to
        19. [A] predict [B] restore [C] specify [D] create
        20. [A] review [B] achieve [C] present [D] modify

        1-5         D C B A C          6-10    C  D  A  B  D    
        11-15    A  D B D B         16-20   A  B  A  C  B    

        Section II Reading Comprehension
        Part A
        Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
        Text 1
        "Reskilling" is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future in which a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will  the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Fortune finds that on average 42 percent of the"core skills" within job roles will change by 2022.That is a very short timeline.
        The question of who should pay for their reskilling is a thorny one. For individual company companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T  is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.
        With the pandemic,unemployment is very high indeed. In February, United States were at generational low and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent,and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors,nurses and other medical personnel.
        Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, may be you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The efforts was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish University.
        21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests_________.
        1. an urgent demand for new job skills 
        2. an increase in full-time employment
        3. the steady growth of job opportunities
        4. a controversy about the “core skills”
        22.AT&T is cited to show_________.
        1. the characteristics of reskilling programs
        2. the importance of staff appraisal standards
        3. an immediate need for government support
        4. an alternative to the fire-hire strategy
        23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada_________.
        A.have appeared to be insufficient
        B.have driven up labour costs
        C.have proved to be inconsistent
        D.have met with fierce opposition
        24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was__________.
        A.a sign of economic recovery
        B.a call for policy adjustment
        C.a change in hiring practices
        D.a lack of medical workers
        25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to __________.
        A.create jobs vacancies for the unemployed
        B.retrain their cabin staff for better services
        C.prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs
        D.finance their staff's college education
        Text 2
        With the global population predicted to hit close to 10 billion by 2050, and forecasts that agricultural production in, some regions will need to nearly double to keep pace, food security is increasingly making headlines. In the UK, it has become a big talking point recently too, for rather particular reason: Brexit.
        Brexit is seen by some as an opportunity to reverse a recent trend towards the UK importing food. The country produces only about 60 percent of the food it eats, down from almost three-quarters in the late 1980s. A move back to self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation’s health. Sounds great—but bow feasible is this vision?
        According to a report on UK food production from the University of Leeds, UK, 85 per cent of the country's total land area is associated with meat and dairy production. That supplies 80 per cent of what is consumed, so even covering the whole country in livestock farms wouldn't allow us to cover all our meat and dairy needs.
        There are many caveats to those figures, but they are still grave. To become much more self-sufficient, the UK would need to drastically reduce its consumption of animal foods, and probably also farm more intensively—meaning fewer green fields, and more factory-style production.
        But switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn't help. There is a good reason why the UK is dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn't have the right soil or climate to grow crops on a commercial basis. Just 25 percent of the county's land is suitable for crop-growing, most of which is already occupied by arable fields. Even if we converted all the suitable land to fields of fruit and veg—which would involve taking out all the nature reserves and removing thousands of people from their homes—we would achieve only a 30 percent boost in crop production.
        Just 23 percent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the UK are currently home-grown, so even with the most extreme measures we could meet only 30 percent of our fresh produce needs. That is before we look for the space to grow the grains, sugars, seeds and oils that provide us with the vast bulk of our current calorie intake.
        26.Some people argue that food self-sufficient in UK would__________.
        A.be hindered by its population ground
        B.become a priority of government
        C.pose a challenge to its farming industry
        D.contribute to the nation's well-being
        27.The report by the university of Leeds shows that in the UK______.
        A.farmland has been inefficiently utilized
        B.factory-style production needs reforming
        C.most land is used for meat and dairy production
        D.more green fields will be converted for farming
        28.Crop-growing in the UK is restricted due to__________>
        A.its farming technology
        B.its dietary tradition
        C.its natural conditions
        D.its commercial interests
        29.It can be learned from the last paragraph that British people__________.
        A.rely largely on imports for fresh produce
        B.enjoy a steady rise in fruit consumption
        C.are seeking effective ways to cut calorie intake
        D.are trying to grow new varieties of grains
        30.The author's attitude to food self-sufficient in the UK is__________.